What is Diabetes? continued...
Type 1 Diabetes
Type 1 diabetes affects the body such that it can no longer produce insulin
Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease that causes the insulin producing beta cells in the pancreas to be destroyed, preventing the body from being able to produce enough insulin to adequately regulate blood glucose levels.
Type 1 diabetes may sometimes be referred to as juvenile diabetes, however, this term is generally regarded as outdated as, whilst it is commonly diagnosed in children, the condition can develop at any age.
Insulin dependent diabetes is another term that may sometimes be used to describe type 1 diabetes.
Because type 1 diabetes causes the loss of insulin production, it therefore requires regular insulin administration either by injection or by insulin pump.
Type 1 diabetes symptoms
Type 1 diabetes symptoms should be acted upon immediately, as without treatment this type of diabetes can be deadly.
• Above average thirst
• Tiredness during the day
• Needing to pee regularly
• Unexplained weight loss
• Genital itchiness
Type 1 diabetes tends to develop more slowly in adults than it does in children and in some cases type 1 diabetes in adults may be misdiagnosed as type 2 diabetes.
Type 1 causes
Type 1 diabetes is caused by a fault in the body’s immune response in which the immune system mistakenly targets and kills beta cells, the cells in the pancreas responsible for producing insulin.
As more insulin producing cells in the pancreas are killed off, the body can no longer control its blood glucose levels and the symptoms of diabetes begin to appear.
What causes the initial fault in the immune system is yet to be discovered, however, research suggests that the condition results from a combination of genetic predisposition with an environmental trigger.
What triggers the immune system to behave this way is yet to be conclusively identified. To date, the strongest evidence points towards a virus as being the most likely trigger.
If you show signs of having diabetes, your doctor may use blood or urine tests to diagnose diabetes. Your doctor should consider which type of diabetes you have as this can affect how your diabetes is treated. If the type of diabetes is unclear, your doctor may decide to carry out one or more of the following tests:
• Ketone test
• GAD autoantibodies test
• C-pepide test
Treatment for type 1 diabetes
The impairment of the pancreas’ ability to produce insulin in type 1 diabetes means that insulin treatment is necessary.
Most people will take insulin by injection with insulin pens. Insulin can also be delivered by wearing an insulin pump. Use of an insulin pump will be considered in people that express an interest in having one and that meet certain eligibility criteria.
It is important that you are given education on how to balance insulin doses with dietary intake and physical activity and how to use blood glucose testing to help you control your diabetes.
Staying physically active and exercising regularly and eating a healthy diet are also important towards maintaining good blood glucose control and minimizing the risk of long term diabetes complications. Although diet and exercise have a role to play in type 1 diabetes management, they cannot reverse the disease or eliminate the need for insulin.
Type 1 diabetes and complications
Type 1 diabetes is a serious condition which can carry a significant risk of both short term and long term complications.
Short term complications
Short term complications can occur if blood glucose levels go too low or if insulin injections are missed. The short term complications that can occur are:
• Hypoglycemia - too low blood sugar levels
• Ketoacidosis - which can occur if insulin doses are missed or blood glucose levels become too high
Long term complications
Type 1 diabetes can lead to the development of the following long term diabetes complications:
• Heart disease
• Kidney disease
Whilst the list of complications is a scary prospect, the chances of developing these can be significantly reduced by maintaining good control of your blood glucose levels .
Type 2 Diabetes
Type 2 diabetes is one of the most common long-term health conditions. It is a metabolic disorder that results in hyperglycemia (high blood glucose levels) due to the body:
Being ineffective at using the insulin it has produced; also known as insulin resistance and/or Being unable to produce enough insulin
Type 2 diabetes is characterized by the body being unable to metabolize glucose (a simple sugar). This leads to high levels of blood glucose which over time may damage the organs of the body.
Type 2 diabetes was formerly known as non-insulin-dependent or adult-onset diabetes due to its occurrence mainly in people over 40. However, type 2 diabetes is now becoming more common in young adults, teens and children and accounts for roughly 90% of all diabetes cases worldwide.
What causes type 2 diabetes?
Type 2 diabetes occurs when the hormone insulin is not used effectively by the cells in your body. Insulin is needed
for cells to take in glucose (sugar) from the bloodstream and convert it into energy.
Ineffective use of insulin results in the body becoming resistant to insulin - also known as insulin resistance, which in turn causes blood sugar levels to rise (hyperglycemia).
In advanced stages, type 2 diabetes may cause damage to insulin producing cells in the pancreas, leading to insufficient insulin production for your body's needs.
Type 2 diabetes risk factors
A number of factors can increase the risk of developing type 2 diabetes.
• Being overweight or obese
• Having a waist size of 31.5 inches or more (women) or more than 37 inches (men)
• Eating an unhealthy diet
• Physical inactivity
• Having a first-degree relative with type 2 diabetes
• Having high blood pressure or raised cholesterol levels
The likelihood of developing type 2 diabetes is also influenced by genetics and environmental factors. For example, research shows that:
• If either parent has type 2 diabetes, the risk of inheritance of type 2 diabetes is 15%
• If both parents have type 2 diabetes, the risk of inheritance is 75%
Is there any age where I'm more at risk of type 2?
Type 2 diabetes used to be known as adult-onset diabetes as it was primarily seen in middle-aged adults over the age of 40.
However, in recent years, cases of type 2 diabetes have become more common in young adults, teens and children. This increase has been connected to climbing levels of obesity.
Symptoms and diagnosis
The most common symptoms of type 2 diabetes are:
• Excessive thirst
• Frequent urination
• Increased hunger
• Extreme tiredness
• Sudden loss of muscle mass
Some of these symptoms are the same for type 1 diabetes, but in type 2 diabetes they tend to develop more slowly over a period of months or years, making it harder sometimes for people to recognize them as signs of an underlying illness.
In fact, many people have type 2 diabetes for a long period of time before being diagnosed with the disease.
Type 2 diabetes is frequently diagnosed following the results of either a fasting plasma glucose test or an oral glucose tolerance test.
The condition can be detected through diabetes screening or may be picked up as part of other health checks.
Type 2 diabetes treatment
First line treatment for type 2 diabetes typically includes a combination of diet modification with regular and appropriate exercise.
Low carb - Adopting a lower-carb diet can help with weight loss and lowering of blood glucose levels. This is because metabolised carbohydrate turns into glucose in the bloodstream and has an impact on blood sugar.
Low calorie - Reducing food intake to 600 calories per day for 8 weeks will give best diabetes control .
By adopting both methods diabetes type 2 reversal is possible .
Blood glucose testing - People with type 2 diabetes can benefit greatly from testing their blood sugar levels as this provides immediate feedback on how food, lifestyle and illness affects blood glucose levels. Regular, structured blood glucose testing (also known as self-monitoring of blood glucose or SMBG) has been shown to improve long-term diabetes control by reducing HbA1c and the risk of complications.
Gestational diabetes is a type of diabetes that can develop in pregnancy.
Gestational diabetes occurs when you have hyperglycemia (high blood glucose levels) during pregnancy. Gestational diabetes usually develops in the third trimester (between 24 and 28 weeks) and typically disappears after the baby is born.
Women who develop gestational diabetes during pregnancy are more likely to develop type 2 diabetes later on in life.
Finding out you have gestational diabetes can be very frightening as not only do you have to deal with all the emotions (the ups and the downs) and the questions that come with being pregnant, but also the uncertainty of this new-found condition.
Fortunately, as with all types of diabetes, there are many well-informed health professionals to help answer your questions and to guide you through this very important time in your life.
Hormonal changes and insulin
It is the hormonal changes (hormones made by the placenta that resist insulin) in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy, along with the growth demands of the foetus, that increase a pregnant woman's
insulin needs by two to three times that of normal.Insulin is needed to take the sugar from your blood and move it into your cells for energy.If your body cannot make this amount of insulin, sugar from the foods you eat will stay in your blood stream and cause high blood sugars.This is gestational diabetes.How common is gestational diabetes? Gestational diabetes means diabetes mellitus (high blood sugar) first found during pregnancy.It occurs in 3-5% of all pregnancies (in other words, 1 in 20 pregnant women will develop gestational diabetes); so, you can take comfort in the fact that you are not alone.
In most cases, gestational diabetes is managed by diet and exercise and goes away after the baby is born.
Very few women with gestational diabetes require insulin to control this type of diabetes.
If you do need insulin, it will ensure blood glucose stays in the acceptable range, thereby reducing the risks to you and your baby.
Gestational diabetes should not be taken lightly. Immediate risks to the mother and fetus are very real; however, these risks can be minimized with good care and follow up.
1.Placenta produces hormones ( estrogen, cortisol and human placental lactogen)
2.These hormones inhibit the functioning of insulin
3. Blood glucose level is increased
Most of the therapies admit that Diabetes has no cure, you can take steps to manage your diabetes and stay healthy.
But Prevention is possible and also other natural healing options are there to Reverse most of the Diabetes disorders and complications