Nutritional Disease.. continued...
Diabetes

According to WHO, a lack of vitamin A is the leading cause of preventable blindness in children. Pregnant women deficient in vitamin A have higher maternal mortality rates as well. Beta-carotene is a nutrient that functions as an antioxidant and is found in red, orange, yellow, and dark green pigmented produce. Beta-carotene can be converted to vitamin A in the body when needed.
For newborn babies, the best source of vitamin A is breast milk. For everyone else, it’s important to eat plenty of foods high in vitamin A. These include:
• milk
• eggs
• green vegetables, such as kale, broccoli, and spinach
• orange vegetables, such as carrots, sweet potatoes, and pumpkin
• reddish-yellow fruits, such as apricots, papaya, peaches, and tomatoes
Thiamine (vitamin B-1) deficiency
Another common nutritional deficiency occurs with thiamine, also known as vitamin B-1. Thiamine is an important part of your nervous system. It also helps your body turn carbohydrates into energy as part of your metabolism.
A lack of thiamine can result in weight loss and fatigue as well as some cognitive symptoms such as confusion and short-term memory loss. Thiamine deficiency can also lead to nerve and muscle damage and can affect the heart.
Thiamine deficiency is most often seen in people who chronically abuse alcohol. Alcohol reduces the body’s ability to absorb thiamine, store thiamine in the liver, and convert thiamine to a usable form. Thiamine deficiency is a common cause of Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome, a form of dementia.
Niacin (vitamin B-3) deficiency
Niacin (vitamin B-3) is another mineral that helps the body convert food into energy. A severe deficiency of niacin is often referred to as pellagra. Niacin is found in most animal proteins, but also in peanuts. As a result, this condition is rare in developed countries or in meat-eating communities.
Symptoms of pellagra include diarrhea, dementia, and skin disorders. You can usually treat it with a balanced diet and vitamin B-3 supplements.
Folate (vitamin B-9) deficiency
Vitamin B-9, often referred to as folate, helps the body create red blood cells and produce DNA. It also helps brain development and nervous system functioning. Folic acid is the synthetic form found in supplements or fortified foods.
Folate is especially important for fetal development. It plays a crucial role in the formation of a developing child’s brain and spinal cord. Folate deficiency can lead to severe birth defects, growth problems, or anemia.
You can find folate in foods, including:
• beans and lentils
• citrus fruits
• leafy green vegetables
• asparagus
• meats such as poultry and pork
• shellfish
• fortified grain products
• whole grains
While beans can provide great folate, the folate content in canned beans is about half of what cooked dried beans offer.
Pregnant women and women of childbearing age sometimes don’t consume enough folate for a healthy pregnancy. The National Institutes of Health (NIH) recommends that women who are pregnant or who may become pregnant consume up to 400 milligrams of folate or folic acid each day to help prevent birth defects.
Vitamin D deficiency
According to Harvard’s School of Public Health, about 1 billion people worldwide are affected by vitamin D deficiency. People with darkly pigmented skin are at a higher risk of vitamin D deficiency.
Vitamin D is essential for healthy bones. It helps the body maintain the right levels of calcium in order to regulate the development of teeth and bones. A lack of this nutrient can lead to stunted or poor bone growth. Osteoporosis, caused by a lack of calcium and vitamin D, can lead to porous and fragile bones that break very easily.
The best source of vitamin D is sunlight. Vitamin D is only found naturally in a few foods. Foods with vitamin D include:
• fish liver oils
• fatty fish
• mushrooms
• egg yolks
• liver
Ultraviolet light from the sun is also a source of vitamin D. According to the NIH, research suggests that 5 to 30 minutes of sun exposure twice a week on the face, arms, neck, or back can provide you with enough vitamin D.
Although recommended for UV protection, sunscreen does hinder vitamin D absorption from sunlight through the skin. Spend a few minutes in the sun prior to sunscreen for optimal vitamin D absorption.
Calcium deficiency
Calcium helps your body develop strong bones and teeth. It also helps your heart, nerves, and muscles work the way they should. A calcium deficiency often doesn’t show symptoms right away, but it can lead to serious health problems over time. If you aren’t consuming enough calcium, your body may use the calcium from your bones instead, leading to bone loss.
While some experts believe that calcium deficiencies may be related to low bone mass and weakening of bones due to osteoporosis, it’s a topic of much debate. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), evidence does support the importance of calcium with vitamin D in older populations for bone health, but evidence is weaker for younger populations.
Population study research by WHO also reveals that countries with lower calcium intake don’t have high rates of bone diseases.
Calcium deficiency can lead to convulsions and abnormal heart rhythms. They can even be life-threatening. Postmenopausal women experience greater bone loss due to changing hormones and have more trouble absorbing calcium.
The best sources of calcium are dairy products such as milk, yogurt, and small fish with bones. Vegetables such as kale and broccoli also have calcium, and many cereals and grains are calcium-fortified.
CAUSES
What causes nutritional deficiencies?
The usual cause of nutritional deficiencies is a poor diet that lacks essential nutrients. The body is able to store some nutrients, so a deficiency may not be caught until it’s been without the nutrient for some time.
A number of diseases and conditions — including colon cancer, imbalanced gut flora, and gastrointestinal conditions like Crohn’s and celiac disease — can lead to an iron deficiency. Pregnancy can also cause a deficiency if the body diverts iron to the fetus.
What are the symptoms of nutritional deficiencies?
The symptoms of a nutritional deficiency depend on which nutrient the body lacks. However, there are some general symptoms you might experience, including:
• pallor, or pale skin
• fatigue
• weakness
• trouble breathing
• unusual food cravings
• hair loss
• periods of lightheadedness
• constipation
• sleepiness
• heart palpitations
• feeling faint or fainting
• depression
• tingling and numbness of the joints
• menstrual issues, such as missed periods or  very heavy cycles
• poor concentration
You may display all of these symptoms or only groups of them. Over time, most people adapt to the symptoms. 

Will a nutritional deficiency cause long-term problems?
Most problems caused by nutritional deficiencies will stop once you’re no longer deficient. But in some cases, there may be lasting damage. This usually only occurs when the deficiency has been severe and has lasted a long time.
For example, a prolonged thiamine deficiency can be associated with stunted growth or depression. Nutritional deficiencies in children can be serious and lead to lasting negative health outcomes.
If you’re experiencing symptoms and are concerned that you’re not obtaining enough of a certain nutrient, talk to your health care consultant . They can discuss your diet with you and help figure out whether you should make some dietary changes or start taking supplements.
Disorders 
Disorders, as we all know, are manifestations of the subtle imbalances and inefficacies that the body is facing. Medical experts point out that most of these disorders do not develop in a day but instead progress gradually over a period of months, or even years, until the onset of clinical symptoms. Thus, it would be right to say that early diagnosis and intervention plays a major role in monitoring and treating the disorders. Listed below are the disorders with their symptoms and causes.

ANEMIA
The purpose of red blood cells in the body is to deliver oxygen from lungs to other parts of the body using a protein called hemoglobin. Anemia is a disorder where the cells do not receive adequate oxygen from the blood. It is mainly due to not having enough number of red blood cells (RBCs) or sufficient quantity of hemoglobin in the blood. Anemia can result from various conditions which include loss of blood because of continuous bleeding, iron deficiency, kidney diseases, stomach ulcers, pregnancy, poor nutrition, abnormally low production of RBCs, excessive destruction of RBCs. 

Anemic patients generally experience tiredness and lethargy (a feeling of laziness). It is not uncommon to have their mental state affected as well. Headache, poor concentration, malaise, increased sweating are some of the symptoms linked to anemia. In some cases, anemia is temporary and caused by nutritional deficiency while in others it may result due to inherited conditions. However, severe anemia can be life threatening.
 

AUTOIMMUNE DISORDERS
A healthy human body has a powerful immune system to resist the invasion of pathogens or micro-organisms. Unfortunately, sometimes, the immune system wrongly recognises its own cells as foreign and attacks the body itself. These misdirected immune responses are referred to as autoimmunity which is characterised by the presence of auto antibodies against host-antigens. 

The origin and mechanism of autoimmune diseases is still largely a mystery. Autoimmunity seems to result from the interplay of various influences, including environmental and genetic factors. 

There are many different types of autoimmune disorders. Based on the part of the body affected, autoimmune diseases are classified as organ specific (eg. Type 1 diabetes) and non-organ specific (e.g. systemic lupus erythematosus). In organ specific diseases, the lesions are restricted to an organ as an antigen present in the organ triggers autoimmunity. However, in systemic autoimmunity the antigens are ubiquitous. 

An autoimmune disorder may result either in the destruction of one or more types of body tissues or changes in the organ functions. Its symptoms may vary depending upon the disease and location of abnormal immune response. The goal of treatment in autoimmune disorders is to reduce the symptoms by controlling the autoimmune responses and retaining the body's ability to fight diseases. So far, there is no prevention for most of the autoimmune disorders.
CANCER
Cell division is a physiological process that occurs in almost all tissues of the body. Under normal circumstances, there is a balance between cell proliferation and programmed cell death, which is tightly regulated to ensure the integrity of organs and tissues. Disruption of this physiological process leads to autonomous uncontrolled division of cells in the body called 'Cancer'. 

This uncontrolled cell division in cancer leads to the formation of lumps or masses of tissues called as tumors. Certain types of tumors that do not spread or metastasise and have limited growth are generally considered to be benign whereas the tumors that proliferate and spread to other systems of the body thereby adversely affecting the body functions are malignant. There are many different types of cancers and each cancer is classified based on the affected region. 

Cancer is a rapidly growing challenge to the world. Anyone can get cancer but there are certain risk factors that may make it more likely to happen. Risk factors include smoking, alcohol consumption, previous family history of cancer, HIV infection, exposure to harmful radiations, asbestos fibers and some hazardous chemicals used in workplace. 

The symptoms and treatment of cancer always depends on the type of cancer as well as the stage. The earlier the cancer is diagnosed, the better one's survival rate would be. Today, cancer can be detected in many ways which include physical examination, screening tests, and medical imaging and nuclear medicine scans.

CARDIOVASCULAR DISORDERS
Cardiovascular disease is a class of diseases that involve the heart or blood vessels. Most people think of only middle-aged and old people of being affected by heart diseases. But nowadays because of the sedentary lifestyle, individuals from any age group are likely to develop cardiac diseases. They have become one of the largest causes of death worldwide. Age, gender, high blood pressure, high serum cholesterol levels, smoking, alcohol consumption, family history, obesity, lack of physical activity and diabetes are the risk factors associated with developing cardiovascular diseases. 

Practicing healthy living habits at the early age such as following a routine exercise schedule, going for a brisk walk, refraining from smoking and alcohol consumption, having a healthy diet, keeping cholesterol levels low and maintaining a correct weight would greatly diminish the risk of cardiovascular diseases. 

In general, heart diseases are related to a process called atherosclerosis, a condition that develops when a substance called plaque builds up in the walls of the arteries due to high cholesterol levels. It narrows the diameter of the artery and obstructs the flow of blood. If there is a clot in the artery, it blocks the blood flow and results in a heart attack or stroke. Some of the other cardiac disorders are heart failure (failure of heart to pump enough blood to the body), arrhythmia (abnormal rhythm of heart), heart valve problems, etc. 

With advances in medical science, today most of the heart diseases are easier to detect and eventually treat. A marked reduction in mortality due to cardiovascular diseases has been observed in the past few years.
DIABETES
Diabetes is not a disease but a disorder, affecting more than 10% of the human population where the body either does not produce adequate insulin or the insulin produced is not properly utilized, due to which the glucose concentration remains high in the blood stream. 

Like any engine, our body needs fuel to keep it going and this fuel is glucose. Glucose is derived from all sorts of foods that we consume, from chocolates to chicken, from bhelpuri to burger, food is converted to glucose which is in turn converted to energy for body functioning. After every meal our food is converted into glucose, thereby increasing the blood glucose levels. The blood glucose levels are controlled by a hormone called insulin. The cells cannot use glucose without the help of insulin. In a normal individual, the body manages to maintain an ideal level of glucose concentration. But in diabetes, insulin is either not produced or not utilized properly, and hence the glucose remains in the blood causing the condition, "Diabetes".

INFERTILITY
Infertility refers to biological inability of an individual to conceive. There are many possible causes of infertility. Some can be easily diagnosed and treated while others cannot. Factors that can cause or contribute to infertility are hormonal imbalance, diseases like gonorrhea or chlamydia, use of certain drugs, medical conditions such as diabetes or thyroid diseases, use of tobacco, marijuana, alcohol and many more. 
The signs of infertility are not the same for all individuals. There are several diagnostic tests that can help detect the condition. Usually, hormonal imbalance is the most common cause of infertility and it can be detected relatively quickly and easily through testing of blood and urine samples and can be treated by medications or infertility treatments such as ovulation induction and in vitro fertilization. 

INFECTIOUS DISEASE
Infectious diseases result due to the presence and growth of microorganisms. There are several infectious diseases that have taken a toll of many innocent lives in the past and prevail today as well. Despite several intensive efforts, these life threatening infections occur over time because microorganisms are constantly evolving and gaining resistance to the existing medications. Moreover, in a highly populous nation like India where exposure to unhygienic conditions is quite common, infectious diseases readily spread amongst the population.  

The problem becomes more serious because many who contract these diseases are unaware without timely diagnosis of the condition, since these are predominantly asymptomatic. 
There is a plethora of infectious diseases such as hepatitis, HIV, dengue, rubella, leptospirosis, etc. Some infectious diseases can be passed from one person to another. Some, however, are transmitted via bites from insects or animals. Others are acquired by ingesting contaminated food or water or other agents in the environment. The signs and symptoms of diseases vary but often include fever or shivering. 

Various infectious diseases continue to emerge and re-emerge over time thereby having a profound impact on the economic development. This necessitates the establishment of an effective public healthcare system to overcome new unexpected infectious diseases.

THYROID
Thyroid is a large butterfly shaped gland situated in the front part of the neck, just below the larynx (voice box). Being a ductless gland its hormones are secreted directly into the bloodstream. Triiodothyroxine (T3) and thyroxine (T4), the two thyroid hormones, help in keeping the body active physically as well as mentally, maintain body temperature and energy levels, fluid balance and maintain cardiac rate when produced normally. However their production is regulated by another hormone; Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) secreted by the pituitary gland. 
When the thyroid gland does not function properly, it can have an impact on every aspect of our health, and in particular, weight, mental state, and energy levels. Some of the symptoms that signal the possibility of thyroid problems are obesity, depression, anxiety, hair loss, heart disease, sexual dysfunction and infertility. The symptoms may be mild or often be confused with other problems which is why many patients remain undiagnosed and untreated for a long time. 

Nutritional Status & Health
Micronutrient are essential to meet  functional deficiencies at the cellular level. The body utilizes 33 vitamins, minerals, amino/fatty acids, antioxidants, and metabolites, while conveying the body’s need for these micronutrients that enable the body to produce enzymes, hormones, and other substances essential for proper growth, development, and good health. By supporting the body with proper nutrition arthritis, cancer, cardiovascular risk, diabetes, various immunological disorders, metabolic disorders and micronutrient deficiencies can be prevented and body can cure itself.

Nutritional needs : 
Macronutrients :  Carbohydrates , Protein , Fat 
Micronutrients : Vitamins and Minerals 
Air :  Oxygen for each and every cell
Water : For all body functions and detoxification 
Fruits : Enzymes, minerals  and Antioxidants
Vegetables : Vitamins and minerals
Herbals : Anti-viral, Anti-inflammatory, Anti-tumor, Cell rejuvenation , Cell Nutrition, Medicinal properties 

INFECTIOUS DISEASE
Infectious diseases result due to the presence and growth of microorganisms. There are several infectious diseases that have taken a toll of many innocent lives in the past and prevail today as well. Despite several intensive efforts, these life threatening infections occur over time because microorganisms are constantly evolving and gaining resistance to the existing medications. Moreover, in a highly populous nation like India where exposure to unhygienic conditions is quite common, infectious diseases readily spread amongst the population.  

The problem becomes more serious because many who contract these diseases are unaware without timely diagnosis of the condition, since these are predominantly asymptomatic. 
There is a plethora of infectious diseases such as hepatitis, HIV, dengue, rubella, leptospirosis, etc. Some infectious diseases can be passed from one person to another. Some, however, are transmitted via bites from insects or animals. Others are acquired by ingesting contaminated food or water or other agents in the environment. The signs and symptoms of diseases vary but often include fever or shivering. 

Various infectious diseases continue to emerge and re-emerge over time thereby having a profound impact on the economic development. This necessitates the establishment of an effective public healthcare system to overcome new unexpected infectious diseases.